Vaccinating against equine viral encephalomyelitis
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UnitedStates Department of Agriculture. Veterinary Services , [s.l.]
Veterinary vaccines., Equine encephalomyelitis., Horses -- Dise
|Statement||Ernest L. Bliss and Chester A. Gipson.|
|Series||Accredited Veterinarians and Animal Health -- 9|
|Contributions||Gipson, Chester A., United States. Veterinary Services.|
|The Physical Object|
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1. Introduction. The alphavirus equine encephalitides are mosquito-borne infections that cause severe neurologic disease and fatality in horses and humans in the to their negative impact on public and equine health, and also because of the potential of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus to spread through movement of infected horses (and people) across borders, Cited by: Vaccinating against equine viral encephalomyelitis book Equine Viral Arteritis.
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a viral disease of particular significance to the equine breeding industry. Infection is rarely life-threatening, but the virus can establish a long-term carrier state in breeding stallions and cause abortion in pregnant broodmares. In the United States, equine alphavirus encephalitides for which vaccines are available include eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE).
EEE has been reported in North and South America. WEE have been recorded more commonly in the Western US. Vaccines protecting against diseases such as equine influenza virus (EIV), equine herpesvirus (EHV-1/4, rhinopneumonitis), equine viral arteritis.
Equine Vaccination Guidelines PLEASURE AND PERFORMANCE HORSES Tetanus Toxoid Equine Influenza Virus Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis Rabies West Nile Virus Equine Viral Arteritis Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 Streptococcus equi ssp.
Equi (Strangles) Annual If File Size: Vaccinating against equine viral encephalomyelitis book. Equine Viral Encephalomyelitis (Encephalitis) season of the year with known data on the insects that carry the disease. Detection of certain blood antibodies (IgM) against the causative virus provides additional support for the diagnosis.
Your veterinarian can recommend the appropriate vaccine and booster schedule for your horse. Eastern (EEE) and Western (WEE) equine encephalomyelitis have been noted in the United States.
Venezuelan (VEE) equine encephalomyelitis has not been seen in the U.S., however a recent outbreak occurred in Mexico. Symptoms vary, but all result from degeneration of the brain. Early signs include fever, depression and loss of appetite. Other diseases such as Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), West Nile Virus (WNV), and tetanus, which are potentially fatal or cause high morbidity, are not spread from horse-to-horse, but are acquired from insects or environmental sources.
Vaccination against these diseases is recommended for all horses. The consequences of the disease itself. Background Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV), an RNA virus that is found in horse populations in many countries.
While typically not life-threatening to otherwise healthy adult horses, EAV can cause abortion in pregnant mares (and uncommonly cause death in young foals) and establish a long-term carrier state in breeding stallions.
Equine viral encephalomyelitis is a disease which can be caused by several viruses (known as equine encephalitis viruses). They include, but are not limited to.
Description Vaccinating against equine viral encephalomyelitis PDF
Definition: Eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis are a pair of closely related viral diseases that affect the horse’s central nervous system.
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is more deadly than western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE). (A related disease, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis [VEE], occurs in Central and South America. Western Equine Encephalitis. EEE/WEE is a mosquito-borne viral infection that can cause severe encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in horses and humans.
There is no specific treatment for this disease and supportive care is the only therapy. Due to vaccination protocol, these 2 diseases no longer occur regularly although small outbreaks.
Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) Colt (male) foals: Single dose at 6 - 12 months of age (see comments) Colt (male) foals: Single dose at 6 - 12 months of age (see comments) Prior to initial vaccination, colt (male) foals should undergo serologic testing and be confirmed negative for antibodies to EAV.
Testing should be performed shortly prior to. Protection of pigs by vaccination of pregnant sows against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus Vet Microbiol. Aug;51() doi: /(96) Preliminary report on the vaccination of man against equine encephalomyelitis (western type) Author(s): Preliminary report on the vaccination of man against equine encephalomyelitis (western type) Author(s): Vaccination Viral Vaccines Clinical Trials as Topic World War II.
These limitations have restricted the use and approval of live-attenuated viral vaccines due to potential adverse events in immunocompromized individuals and the possibility of genetic reversion to the virulent, wild-type phenotype.
One example of restricted use of live vaccine is the TC vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). An improved vaccine is needed against Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus because the existing live attenuated vaccine, TC, causes a high incidence of adverse effects, and the Formalin-inactivated vaccine, C, does not protect against airborne infection.
EEE AND WEE (Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis) vaccines for horses come in many forms. You can opt for a product like Vetera VEWT, Equiloid Innovator, Prestige 3, or Vetera EWT. If you’re in the market for a broad-spectrum, multi-way vaccine, keep reading to get more information about some of the best options.
Maureen T. Long, E. Paul J. Gibbs, in Equine Infectious Diseases (Second Edition), Prevention. Western equine encephalitis is preventable with vaccination protocols similar to those described indicated in the section on prevention of EEE virus in this chapter. Because the incidence of WEE has dramatically declined in the United States, even in sentinel and mosquito testing, it.
Licensure of a vaccine to protect against aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) requires use of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule to assess vaccine efficacy as human studies are not feasible or ethical.
An approach to selecting VEEV challenge strains for use under the Animal Rule was developed, taking into account Department of Defense (DOD) vaccine. Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE/WEE) Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE/WEE) are viral infections of the horse's brain and spinal cord.
The virus is maintained in reservoirs (primarily birds and rodents) and transmitted to the horse by the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease is fatal in percent of cases. A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV).
One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis. Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a rare disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes.
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CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People. The equine practitioner, involved in a mission of prevention and surveillance, plays an important role in the clinical diagnosis of viral encephalitis. The general management of the horse is essentially supportive, focused on controlling pain and inflammation within the central nervous system, preventing injuries and providing supportive care.
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Risk-based diseases include viral respiratory pathogens such as equine influenza (EIV) and equine herpesviruses-1 and -4 (EHV-1/4), also termed. Yearlings: Start with annual vaccination at 12 months.
Adults: Semi-annual vaccination. Semi-annual vaccination weeks prior to foaling due date. Semi-annual vaccination: Equine Viral Arteritis *21 day isolation period required after initial vaccination: Intact colts intended to. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) was first identified in following an extreme respiratory-abortion syndrome on a standardbred farm in Ohio.
EVA causes panvasculitis (inflammation of the veins and arteries) that results in edema of the limbs and an urticaria-like reaction of the head, neck and trunk.
When making vaccination decisions, caretakers should study the disease and its prevalence during various times of the year. Mosquito-borne illnesses like Wes Nile Virus and Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis peak during late summer and early fall, when mosquito populations explode.
Equine viral encephalomyelitis (encephalitis) is an inflammation of the brain.
Details Vaccinating against equine viral encephalomyelitis FB2
Found to occur mostly in various parts of North and South America, this condition is caused by three viruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus of the genus Alphavirus). Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes periodic epizootics in equines and is a recognized biological defense threat for humans.
There are currently no FDA-licensed vaccines against VEEV. We developed a candidate DNA vaccine expressing the E3-EK-E1 genes o. Species Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is capable of causing disease in a number of mammalian and avian species, and is the most lethal of the naturally occurring encephalitic alphaviruses of North America, with mortality rates in humans and horses of 50–75% and 70–90%, respectively.
14,18 The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and. Mosquito-borne Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus: What to know These tests typically look for antibodies that the body makes against the viral infection. There is a vaccine. This group includes the pathogens O'nyong'nyong virus, Chikungunya virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis.
Alphaviruses are not only important human and animal pathogens but have also been used as model systems for the study of enveloped virus structure and as viral.
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